Today we are going to talk about two special cases of the בִּנְיָן פָּעַל.

  1. The case of the פָּעַל with a ו OR י as the SECOND LETTER  of the root. 
  • Infinitive: the infinitive of this group consists of the ל that usually indicates the infinitive followed by the 3 letters of the root (where the second letter MUST BE a י OR ו)

Examples: 

לָשִׁיר – to sing

לָגוּר – to live

  • Present:  here we are going to use the example of לָגוּר but the characteristics are the same no matter if the second letter of the root is a ו or a י.

 

  singular plural
masculine  גָּר גָּרִים
feminine  גָּרָה גָּרוֹת
  • As observed, the second letter of the second letter of the root disappears in the present.
  • The feminine singular form DOES NOT take a ת as an ending but a ה.
  • past:
אני גַּרְתִּי
אתה גַּרְתָּ
את גַּרְתְּ
הוא גָּר *
היא גָּרָה *
אנחנו גַּרְנוּ
אתם גַּרְתֶּם
אתן גַּרְתֶּן
הם / הן גָּרוּ
  • * For הוא and היא the form and way spoken is the same as the singular conjugations in the present tense.
  • In the past, the second letter of the root disappears as well.
  • Future: 
אני  אָגוּר
אתה תָּגוּר
את תָּג֫וּרִי
הוא יָגוּר
היא תָּגוּר
אנחנו נָגוּר
אתם תָּג֫וּרוּ
אתן תָּג֫וֹרְנָה *
הם יָג֫וּרוּ
הן תָּג֫וֹרְנָה *
  • In all conjugations the ו or י is PRESENT.
  • * Just remember that the feminine plural forms are not usually used; the masculine plural forms are used in place of it.
  • Imperative
  singular plural
masculine גּוּר גּ֫וּרוּ
feminine גּ֫וּרִי גּ֫וֹרְנָה *
  • In the imperative the ו or י is present as well.
  • * As well as in the future , the feminine form is usually not used, when needed the masculine plural form is used instead.
  1. The case of פעל where the first letter of the root is י.
  • Infinitive: The infinitive of this group consists of the ל followed by the TWO LAST LETTERS of the the root + the letter ת.

Examples:

לָדַעַת – to know

לָצֵאת – to go out; to exit

  • present: so you must be asking: where is the י? Well, here it is:
  singular plural 
masculine  יוֹדֵעַ יוֹדְעִים
feminine  יוֹדַ֫עַת יוֹדְעוֹת
  • the conjugation of this group is thus pretty simple: first you put the י (first letter of the root) followed by the ו which indicates the present of the בִּנְיָין פָּעַל + the two last letters of the root + suffixes (when needed)
  • past: 
אני יָדַ֫עְתִּי
אתה יָדַ֫עְתָּ
את יָדַעְתְּ
הוא יָדַע
היא יָֽדְעָה
אנחנו יָדַ֫עְנוּ
אתם יְדַעְתֶּם
אתן יְדַעְתֶּן
הם\ הן יָֽדְעוּ
  • As the first letter of the root, the י appears here in all the conjugations.
  • future  
אני אֵדַע
אתה תֵּדַע
את תֵּדְעִי
הוא יֵדַע *
היא תֵּדַע
אנחנו נֵדַע
אתם תֵּדְעוּ
אתן תֵּדַ֫עְנָה **
הם יֵדְעוּ *
הן תֵּדַ֫עְנָה **
  • Similarly to the case of the infinitive, also in the future the י “disappears” from the conjugations.
  • * The conjugations of the 3rd person masculine (plural and singular) are written the same as the conjugations for the past, but instead of saying “yada” (singular) and “yadu” (plural), the forms of the future as pronounced as “yēda” (singular) and “yēdu” (plural).
  • ** Just remember that the feminine plural forms are not usually used; the masculine plural forms are used in place of it.
  • imperative: 
  singular plural
masculine דַּע דְּעוּ
feminine  דְּעִי דַּ̂עְנָה *
  • Like the future and the infinitive, the imperative also does not present the י (first letter of the root).
  • * As well as in the future, the feminine form is usually not used, when needed the masculine plural form is used instead. 

Conclusion: 

Today we explained two special groups of the בִּנְיָין פָּעַל where some letter of the root “disappears” in some forms. 

The best way to identify the root of these groups is to look for the 3rd person masculine in the future for the 1st group presented here.

As for the second group, the best way to identify the root is to look for the 3rd person in the past.

Source:

https://www.pealim.com/

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